05 Storage Administration - Partitions

Ne kete leksion

Identifikimi i disqeve ne Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Ky seksion trajton aspekte te administrimit te storage nen Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Ka dy menyra qe si sistemi i identifikon disqet ne RedHat:

    • ne menyre jo persistente

    • ne menyre persistente

Ne kete leksion do te pershkruajme te mekanizmin se si sistemi i identifikon disqet ne te dy menyrat.

Identifikimi ne menyre jo persistente

Menyrat qe do te pershkruajme me poshte qe perdor sistemi per te identifikuar disqet , percaktojne nje identifikues per diskun i cili mund te ndryshoje ne rastin e rikonfigurimit te disqeve si shtimi apo heqja e disqeve ekzistues.

Skedari i diskut

Si edhe ne sistemet e tjera Linux Red Hat Enterprise Linux perdor skedaret (device files) per te aksesuar disqet ( disk drives). Me poshte pershkruhen rregullat qe perdor RedHat per caktimin e emrave te ktyre skedareve.

Shenim

Emrat e disqeve (Device names) ne Red Hat Enterprise Linux percaktohen ne momentin e ndezjes ( boot-time)

Per kete arsye nese ka ndryshime ne konfigurimin e disqeve mund te ndodhe qe te ndryshojme edhe emrat per disqet ekzistues pasi sistemi te rindizet ( reboot). Per kete arsye mund te kete probleme nese referencat tek disqet nuk ndryshohen sipas emrave te rinj.

Ne Red Hat Enterprise Linux, skedaret e pajisjeve per disqet ndodhen ne dosjen /dev/ .

Formati i emrave te skedareve varet nga lloji i hardware dhe menyra e konfigurimit.

Elementet baze qe shfaqen ne emrin e skedarit jane:

  • Tipi i pajisjes (Device type)

  • Njesia ( Unit)

  • Particioni (Partition)

Tipi i pajisjes

IDE apo SCSI

Njesia

a = i pari

b= i dyti

........

ab= i ..

Particioni

1 - particion i pare

2- particion i dyte

n- particion i n

Lloji i diskut

Dy shkronjat e pare te emrit te skedarit te diskut tregojne tipin e diskut . Nder me te zakonshmit jane:

sd -- per hardisqet SCSI

hd -- per hardisqet ATA

Indeksi

Shkronja tjeter tregon indeksin e diskut.

Per shembull :

shkronja "a" tregon qe eshte disku i pare,

"b" tregon qe eshte disku i dyte etj

Prandaj emri i diskut te pare ne serverin Tuaj do te jete hda ose sda.

Disku i dyte qe shtoni eshte hdb ose sdb e keshtu me rradhe

Shenim

Aftesia e teknologjise SCSI per te adresuar nje numer te madh disqesh ka kerkuar shtimin e nje karakteri shtese qe tregon indeksin e diskut. Mund te kete raste kur ne sistem ka me shume se 26 disqe. Ne kete rast 26 disqet e para ne sistem do te identifikoheshin si sda.. sdz, ndersa 26 te tjeret do te ishin sdaa.. sdaz, e keshtu me rradhe.

Particioni

Pjesa e trete e emrit te skedarit te diskut perfaqeson numrin e particionit. Numri i particionit mund te jete nje ose dy shifra ne varesi te numrit te particioneve qe jane krijuar ne disk

Shembujt me poshte ilustrojne formatin e skedareve:

Ushtrim

Identifikoni skedaret e diskut ne serverin Tuaj

[root@localhost ~]# ls /dev/sd* -l | grep disk

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 0 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sda

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 16 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdb

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 17 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdb1

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 18 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdb2

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 19 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdb3

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 20 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdb4

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 21 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdb5

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 32 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdc

brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 48 Mar 6 23:12 /dev/sdd

[root@localhost ~]#

Sqarime

Linket ne /dev/disk/by-path

Pervec emrave te skedareve te diskut redhat perdor edhe nje menyre tjeter per identifikimin e disqeve.

Ne dosjen /dev/disk sistemi ruan disa linke .

Ne dosjen /dev/disk/by-path ruan linke qe lidhin identifikuesin e diskut (harware) me emrin e skedarit ne /dev/sdx.

Per shembull disqet SCSI perdorin disa komponente per identifikimin, me konkretisht:

    • PCI identifier of the host bus adapter (HBA)

    • channel number on that HBA

    • the remote SCSI target address

    • the Logical Unit Number (LUN)

per shembull me poshte listohen disqet ne nje sistem nga /dev/disk/by-path

[root@localhost student]# ls /dev/disk/by-path/ -l

total 0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:07.1-scsi-0:0:0:0 -> ../../sde

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:07.1-scsi-1:0:0:0 -> ../../sr0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0 -> ../../sda

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1 -> ../../sda1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part2 -> ../../sda2

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part3 -> ../../sda3

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part4 -> ../../sda4

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part5 -> ../../sda5

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 14 13:15 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:1:0 -> ../../sdb

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 14 15:17 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1 -> ../../sdb1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:2:0 -> ../../sdc

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 14 12:21 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:3:0 -> ../../sdd

[root@localhost student]#

Identifikimi ne menyre persistente

Menyrat qe do te pershkruajme me poshte qe perdor sistemi per te identifikuar disqet , percaktojne nje identifikues per diskun i cili nukndryshon ne rastin e rikonfigurimit te disqeve si shtimi apo heqja e disqeve ekzistues.

World Wide Identifier (WWID) /dev/disk/by-id

World Wide Identifier (WWID) mund te perdoret per te identifikuar ne menyre persistente disqet. WWID eshte nje ID e qendrueshme , e pavarur nga sistemi konkrte qe percaktohet nga standarti SCSI. WWID garantohet qe te jete unikeper cdo disk dhe e pavarur nga path qe perdoret per te aksesuar diskun.

Ky identifikues mund te merret duke bere nje SCSI Inquiry per te marre Device Identification Vital Product Data (page 0x83) ose Unit Serial Number (page 0x80).

Korrespondenca midis WWID dhe skedarit /dev/sdx mbahet neperjmet linkeve ne dosjen /dev/disk/by-id/

Shembulli permbajtjes se dosjes /dev/disk/by-id

[root@localhost student]# ls /dev/disk/by-id/ -l

total 0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 ata-VMware_Virtual_IDE_Hard_Drive_00000000000000000001 -> ../../sda

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 scsi-SATA_VMware_Virtual_00000000000000000001 -> ../../sda

[root@localhost student]#

Identifikimi nepermjet UUID /dev/disk/by-uuid

Nese nje drive ka nje file system atehere eshte e mundur qe ai te identifikohet nepermjet UUID, qe eshte akronim i Universal Unique Identifier. UUID eshte persistent dhe bazohet ne ne metadata qe shkruhen ne disk nga disa programe, per shembull LVM shkruan te dhena pershkruese ( metadata) ne disk te cilat i perdore me pas per te marre informacione mbi diskun, perfshire UUID ose FS Label.

Korrespondenca midis UUID te njesive te diskut qe kane FileSystem ruhet ne dosjen /dev/disk/by-uuid.

Per shembull

nga disqet qe duken ne /dev/disk/by-path

[root@localhost student]# ls /dev/disk/by-path/ -l

total 0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:07.1-scsi-0:0:0:0 -> ../../sda

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:07.1-scsi-1:0:0:0 -> ../../sr0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0 -> ../../sdb

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part1 -> ../../sdb1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part2 -> ../../sdb2

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part3 -> ../../sdb3

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part4 -> ../../sdb4

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:0:0-part5 -> ../../sdb5

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:1:0 -> ../../sdc

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:1:0-part1 -> ../../sdc1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:2:0 -> ../../sdd

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 9 Mar 15 13:58 pci-0000:00:10.0-scsi-0:0:3:0 -> ../../sde

[root@localhost student]#

vetem particionet e /dev/sdb kane korrespondence ne /dev/disk/by-uuid pasi ato jane te vetmet qe kane file sistem:

[root@localhost student]# ls /dev/disk/by-uuid/ -l

total 0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 220e3c6e-c730-402f-9b6d-d7d13446d4e7 -> ../../sdb1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 3ffc3610-2d6b-424a-a723-42b1678b20c6 -> ../../sdb2

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 9caf33ea-32ce-4674-9ab1-e9b148dbacb8 -> ../../sdb3

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 bc67a097-6666-43c7-a082-5c3d9d7cc2ba -> ../../sdb5

[root@localhost student]#

/dev/sdb4 nuk shfaqet pasi eshte particioni SWAP.

Nese e formatojme edhe particionin /dev/sdc1 psh me ext4

[root@localhost student]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdc1

mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Filesystem label=

OS type: Linux

Block size=4096 (log=2)

Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

...................................................

do te veme re qe ai do te shfaqet ne /dev/disk/by-uuid

[root@localhost student]# ls /dev/disk/by-uuid/ -l

total 0

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 220e3c6e-c730-402f-9b6d-d7d13446d4e7 -> ../../sdb1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 3ffc3610-2d6b-424a-a723-42b1678b20c6 -> ../../sdb2

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 9caf33ea-32ce-4674-9ab1-e9b148dbacb8 -> ../../sdb3

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 14:22 a7c6d384-57bb-4efe-8782-0d6d6523accf -> ../../sdc1

lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Mar 15 13:58 bc67a097-6666-43c7-a082-5c3d9d7cc2ba -> ../../sdb5

[root@localhost student]#

Etiketat e sistemit te skedareve ( File System Labels)

Disa sisteme skedaresh kane aftesine te ruajne nje etikete -- nje string qe mund te perdoret per te identifikuar te dhenat qe permban sistemi i skedareve.

Etiketa mund te perdoret me pas kur ngarkojme sistemin e skedareve duke shmangur nevojen e perdorimit te emrit te skedarit te diskut.

Etiketat e sistemit te skedareve jane nje zgjidhje e mire per te referuar disqet; megjithate:

    • etiketat e sistemit te skedareve duhet te jene unike ne te gjithe sistemin.Nese ka me shume se nje sisteme skedaresh me te njejten etikete , mund te shkaktohen probleme ne referimin e diskut.

    • Ka raste kur nuk perdoren sistemet e skedareve (per shembull disa database), ne keto raste nuk mund te perdoren etiketat e sistemite te skedareve per te referuar disqet.

Programi devlabel

Alternatives to device files

Duke qene se heqja ose shtimi i disqeve mund te shkaktoje ndryshimin e emrave te skedareve per diskqe ose particionet ekzistuese, ekziston rreziku qe programet e mos funksionojne korrekt pasi mund te mos gjejne me disqet pas rindezjes se sistemi.

Me poshte po e ilustrojme kete rresik me nje liste veprimesh qe mund te rezultojne ne nje situate problematike:

Ndonese problemi duket kritik ne praktike rralle e hasim kete problem per disa arsye:

    1. Se pari , te tilla rikonfigurime te hardware nuk ndodhin shpesh.

    2. Se dyti, zakonisht administratori i sistemit ka planifikuar nje kohe per te bere ndryshime e nevojshme

Megjithate, ndonese rralle problemi mund te ndodhe sidomos ne ato raste kur rikonfigurimi i disqeve eshte i shpeshte dhe nuk eshte e lejueshme qe te fikim sistemin per nje periudhe te caktuar. Aq me teper qe "hardware hotpluggable" e ben te lehte shtimin ose heqjen e disqeve.

Perdorimi i devlabel

Programi devlabel ( device label) e zgjidh problemin e riemerimit te skedareve te disqeve ne nje tjeter menyre.

Programi devlabel therritet ne ekzekutim atehere kur

    • rindizet sistemi ( reboot)

    • kur nje disk hotplug shtohet ose hiqet

Kur ekzekutohet devlabel lezon ne skedarin e tij te konfigurimit (/etc/sysconfig/devlabel) per te marre nje liste me disqet per te cilat eshte pergjegjes.

Per cdo pajisje ne liste, ka nje link ( shortcut - symlink) qe shenon tek UUID (Universal Unique IDentifier) e diskut.

Programi devlabel sigurohet qe linku shenon gjithmone tek pajisja qe u percaktua paraprakisht -- edhe nese emri i skedarit te diskut ka ndryshuar

Nepermjet devlabel administratori mund te konfiguroje sistemin qe te perdore /dev/projdisk iper te referuar diskun ku ndodhen projektet. Ndersa ka lidhur emrin me lart me diskun fizik per shembull /dev/sda12.

Duke qene UUID lexohet direkt nga pajisja, devlabel i vetem te kerkoje ne sistem per UUID qe lidhet me /dev/projdisk

Shenim

Programi devlabel mund te mos jete instaluar si default . Mund te verifkoni ekzistencen duke listuar paketat e instaluara ose duke verifkuar ekzistencen e skedarit /etc/sysconfig/devlabel ose te skedarit te ekzekutueshem /sbin/devlabel .

Nese nuk e gjeni paketen ne magazinat e paketave mund ta shkarkoni ate ne linkun ne fund te kesaj faqe .

Shembull

Per ta kuptuar me mire problemin dhe zgjidhjen qe ofron devlabel sikkni ne vemendjen Tuaj rastin e meposhtem:

Sic duket ne figuren me lart , nese nje sistem ka 3 disqe SCSI dhe hiqet disku i dyte, atehere /dev/sdc behet /dev/sdb, duke bere qe te gjithe referencat si tek /dev/sdc edhe tek /dev/sdb te jene te gabuara.

Seksioni Konfigurimi i devlabel pershkruan menyren e perdorimit te devlabel per te vendosur emra simbolike disqeve.

Filesystem eshte sistemi i skedareve qe pedor particioni qe mund te jete :

    • ext2

    • ext3

    • fat16

    • fat32

    • hfs

    • jfs

    • linux-swap

    • ntfs

    • reiserfs

    • hp-ufs

    • sun-ufs

    • xfs

Nese Filesystem i nje particioni nu ka vlere ateher kjo do te thote qe nuk njihet sistemi i skedareve per ate particion

Flags

Kollona Flags liston flag-et aktive ne ate particion

Vlera te mundshme jane:

    • boot

    • root,

    • swap,

    • hidden,

    • raid,

    • lvm,

    • lba.

Shenim

Per te zgjedhur nje disk tjeter pa dale nga parted mund te perdorim opsionin select dhe emrin e diskut:

(parted) select /dev/sdbc

Using /dev/sdc

(parted)

Krijimi i particioneve

Praktike

Shtojme nje disk te ri /dev/sdc me 20 gb dhe do ta particionojme.

Perpara se ta perdorim nje disk te ri duhet te percaktojme llojin e tabeles se particionimit qe do te perdore ai. ne te kundert nuk mund te lexojme particionet qe ka ai:

(parted) select /dev/sdc

Using /dev/sdc

(parted) print

Error: /dev/sdc: unrecognised disk label

(parted) mklabel

New disk label type? msdos

(parted)

Shenim:

Tabela e particionimit msdos nuk lejon me shume se 4 particione ( 3 primary 1 extended, ose 4 primary). Ndersa brenda nje particioni extended mund te krijojme particione logical.

Te verifikojme hapesiren e lire qe ka disku qe sapo shtuam

(parted) print free

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdc: 21.5GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

32.3kB 21.5GB 21.5GB Free Space

(parted)

Do te krijojme nje particion te ri te tipit primary. Do te vini re qe do te na pyese nese particioni qe do te krijojme do te jete primari ose extended?

Nuk na lejon ne kete pike te krijojme nje particion logical pasi particionet logical krijohen si nendarje te particionit llogjik.

(parted) mkpart

Partition type? primary/extended? primary

File system type? [ext2]? ext4

Start? 0gb

End? 5gb

Komanda mkpart krijon nje particion te ri. Nese e therrasim pa argumenta atehere na pyet ne formen e nje "wizard" per parametrat e particionit:

Partition type? - ne kete moment duke qene se nuk kemi particion extended e vetma mundesi eshte te krijojme nje particion primar ose extended nuk mund te krijojme particion logical

File system type? - kerkon llojin e sistemit te skedareve qe duam te perdorim ne kete particion default eshte ext2

Start? - nga cili mbyte ( mb ose gb) i diskut duam te fillojme

End? - deri ne cilin mbyte(mb ose gb)?

te verifikojme qe particioni eshte krijuar:

(parted) print free

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdc: 21.5GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

32.3kB 1049kB 1016kB Free Space

1 1049kB 5000MB 4999MB primary

5000MB 21.5GB 16.5GB Free Space

(parted)

Te krjojme nje particion extended ( deri ne kete pike nuk mund te krijojme particione logical)

(parted) mkpart

Partition type? primary/extended? extended

Start? 5gb

End? 21gb

(parted)

Verifikojme qe particioni eshte shtuar

(parted) print

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdc: 21.5GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

1 1049kB 5000MB 4999MB primary

2 5000MB 21.5GB 16.5GB extended lba

(parted)

Tani do ta ndajme particionin 2 ( extended ) ne disa particione logical.

(parted) mkpart

Partition type? primary/logical? logical

File system type? [ext2]? ext4

Start? 5gb

End? 10gb

(parted) mkpart logical ext4 10gb 15gb

(parted) mkpart logical ext4 15gb 20gb

(parted) mkpart logical ext4 20gb 21gb

Shenim

Per particionin e pare logical ( 5gb -10gb ) kemi perdorur "wizard-in" ndersa per particionet e tjera logical qe vijojne kemi perdorur menyren e shkurtuar te komandes duke ia dhene argumentat qe ne fillim:

(parted) mkpart logical ext4 10gb 15gb

Te verifikojme qe particioni extended eshte ndare ne particione logjike:

(parted) print

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdc: 21.5GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

1 1049kB 5000MB 4999MB primary

2 5000MB 21.5GB 16.5GB extended lba

5 5001MB 10.0GB 5000MB logical

6 10.0GB 15.0GB 4999MB logical

7 15.0GB 20.0GB 4999MB logical

8 20.0GB 21.5GB 1474MB logical

(parted)

Formatimi dhe emertimi i nje particioni

Per te formatuar partitionin perdorim komanden mkfs.ext4 nese duam ta formatojme ne ext4.

Shenim:

Nuk mund te formatojme particionin extended por mund te formatojme particionet llogjike qe ndodhen brenda tij

[root@localhost student]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/sdc5

mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)

Filesystem label=

OS type: Linux

Block size=4096 (log=2)

Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks

305216 inodes, 1220608 blocks

61030 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

First data block=0

Maximum filesystem blocks=1249902592

38 block groups

32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group

8032 inodes per group

Superblock backups stored on blocks:

32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736

Writing inode tables: done

Creating journal (32768 blocks): done

Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 22 mounts or

180 days, whichever comes first. Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

[root@localhost student]#

Ta shtojme tek /etc/fstab

Ta shtojme particionin ne /etc/fstab ne menyre qe te ngarkohet automatikisht.

Se pari na duhet te gjejme UUID e particionit.

Per kete mund te perdorim utilitetin blkid -o list si me poshte:

[root@localhost student]# blkid -o list

device fs_type label mount point UUID

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/dev/sdb1 ext4 /boot 220e3c6e-c730-402f-9b6d-d7d13446d4e7

/dev/sdb2 ext4 / 3ffc3610-2d6b-424a-a723-42b1678b20c6

/dev/sdb3 swap <swap> 9caf33ea-32ce-4674-9ab1-e9b148dbacb8

/dev/sdb5 ext4 /home bc67a097-6666-43c7-a082-5c3d9d7cc2ba

/dev/sdc5 ext4 (not mounted) ee092701-28bc-4107-a764-6b267f99de15

[root@localhost student]#

Sic duket me lart particioni /dev/sdc5 i cili eshte i vetmi ne diskun /dev/sdc qe u formatua nuk eshte i ngarkuar.

Tani duke kopjuar UUI do ta vendosim kete particion ne /etc/fstab

Shtojme particionin ne /etc/fstab me editorin epreferuar te tekstit, duke percaktuar si mount point dosjen /mywork qe e kemi krijuar parprakisht:

[root@localhost student]# cat /etc/fstab

UUID=3ffc3610-2d6b-424a-a723-42b1678b20c6 / ext4 defaults 1 1

UUID=220e3c6e-c730-402f-9b6d-d7d13446d4e7 /boot ext4 defaults 1 2

UUID=bc67a097-6666-43c7-a082-5c3d9d7cc2ba /home ext4 defaults 1 2

UUID=ee092701-28bc-4107-a764-6b267f99de15 /mywork ext4 defaults 1 2

UUID=9caf33ea-32ce-4674-9ab1-e9b148dbacb8 swap swap defaults 0 0

tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0

devpts /dev/pts devpts gid=5,mode=620 0 0

sysfs /sys sysfs defaults 0 0

proc /proc proc defaults 0 0

Shenim

UUID e particionit e kopjuam nga rezultatii komandes blkid -o list

Tani e tutje sa here te ndiqet sistemi do te ngarkoje edhe particionin tone ne path /mywork

Pas reboot:

[root@localhost student]# blkid -o list

device fs_type label mount point UUID

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

/dev/sdb5 ext4 /mywork ee092701-28bc-4107-a764-6b267f99de15

/dev/sda1 ext4 /boot 220e3c6e-c730-402f-9b6d-d7d13446d4e7

/dev/sda2 ext4 / 3ffc3610-2d6b-424a-a723-42b1678b20c6

/dev/sda3 swap <swap> 9caf33ea-32ce-4674-9ab1-e9b148dbacb8

/dev/sda5 ext4 /home bc67a097-6666-43c7-a082-5c3d9d7cc2ba

[root@localhost student]#

Fshirja e particioneve

Per te fshire nje particion perdorim opsionin rm <index> te komandes parted si me poshte:

(parted) print

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdd: 2147MB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

1 1049kB 2147MB 2146MB primary

(parted) rm 1

(parted) print

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sdd: 2147MB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

(parted)

Figura me poshte ilustron dallimin midis particionit primar , extended dhe llogjik. zakonisht krijojme nje particion primary ne disk dhe me pas krijojme nje particion extended me hapesiren e mbetur. Particionin extended mund ta ndajme me tej ne particione logical.

Particionet

Ne Redhat mund te perdorim dy programe per particionimin e diskut fdisk ose parted.

Duke nisur nga version 6 Redhat rekomanden parted per disa arsye:

    • fdisk nuk e njeh GUID Partition Table (GPT) dhe nuk eshte dizenjuar per patricione te medha

    • fdisk nuk mund te perdoret per drive me te medha se 2TB ndersa parted po.

Programi parted i lejon perdoruesve te

    • shkojne tabelen ekzistuese te particionimit

    • te ndryshojne dimensionin e particioneve ekzistuese

    • te krijojne particione nga hapesira e lire ne disk

Si rregull paketa parted perfshihet me instalimin e Redhat Linux Enterprise.

[root@localhost student]# yum list parted

Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, refresh-packagekit, security

Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile

* base: ftp.itu.edu.tr

* extras: mirror.cherybg.com

* updates: ftp.itu.edu.tr

Installed Packages

parted.i686 2.1-21.el6 @anaconda-CentOS-201311271240.i386/6.5

[root@localhost student]#

Per te therritut utilitetin parted duhet te logohemi si root dhe te shkruajme parted /dev/sdx ku /dev/sdx eshte disku qe duam te konfigurojme:

[root@localhost student]# parted /dev/sdc

GNU Parted 2.1

Using /dev/sdc

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted)

Nese duam te fshijme ose te ridimensionojme nje particion, ai particion nuk duhet te jete ne perdorim.

Shfaqja e tabeles se particionimit

Opsioni print shfaq tabelen e particionimit ne diskun e perzgjedhur, per shembull

[root@localhost student]# parted /dev/sda

GNU Parted 2.1

Using /dev/sda

Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.

(parted) print

Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)

Disk /dev/sda: 32.2GB

Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B

Partition Table: msdos

Number Start End Size Type File system Flags

1 1049kB 53.5MB 52.4MB primary ext4 boot

2 53.5MB 4248MB 4194MB primary ext4

3 4248MB 6362MB 2114MB primary linux-swap(v1)

4 6362MB 32.2GB 25.9GB extended

5 6363MB 32.2GB 25.8GB logical ext4

(parted)

Rreshtat e pare Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi) tregojne:

    • Tipin e diskut

    • manufacturer,

    • model number and interface.

Ndersa pjesa tjeter tregon tabelen e particioneve

Ne tabelen e particionimit Number eshte numri i particionit, per shembull, particioni me numer (minor) 1 i korrespondon /dev/sda1.

Vlerat e Start dhe End percaktojne ku fillon dhe ku mbaron particioni

Type percakton llojin e particionit midis :

    • free,

    • primary,

    • extended, ose

    • logical.